Folks have been looking for Blind Willie Johnson since his ‚ÄúJohn The Revelator‚ÄĚ jumped out of Harry Smith‚Äôs monumental Anthology of American Folk Music in 1952 like a Pentecostal preacher. ‚ÄúWell, who‚Äôs that writin‚Äô?,‚ÄĚ Blind Willie called out in a fog-cutter bass, with his amen queen Willie B. Harris responding, ‚ÄúJohn The Revelator.‚ÄĚ The repetition of those dissimilar, tent revival voices created a rhythm of dignified hardship, a struggle redeemed by faith. Thumb-picked guitar lines danced around the rough/smooth tension as the devil slid into the back pew.
This 1930 gospel recording about the Apostle who wrote the Book of Revelation was as lowdown dirty and hoppin‚Äô as any blues or hillbilly number on Smith‚Äôs six-disc collection. Blind Willie didn‚Äôt even have to play any bottleneck guitar, which would become his signature on later reissues featuring ‚ÄúNobody‚Äôs Fault But Mine,‚ÄĚ ‚ÄúMother‚Äôs Children Have A Hard Time,‚ÄĚ ‚ÄúKeep Your Lamp Trimmed And Burning,‚ÄĚ ‚ÄúGod Moves On The Water‚ÄĚ and others.
Johnson‚Äôs initial popularity on Columbia‚Äôs 14000-D ‚Äúrace records‚ÄĚ series was such that he was one of the only gospel blues artists whose 78s were reissued during the Depression (four sides on Vocalion in 1935). He recorded 18 months before the debut of the more celebrated Delta blues icon Charley Patton and perfected a slide guitar style with open D tuning that influenced everyone from Robert Johnson and Elmore James to Jimmy Page and Jack White. Vocally, you can be sure Patton understudy Chester Burnett took notice of Johnson‚Äôs wolf-like howl.
In just three years, Blind Willie Johnson produced a significant body of work that transports the listener from ancient Africa to modern times. And yet by the release of Harry Smith‚Äôs gateway drug, almost nothing was known of ‚Äúthe other Blind Willie‚ÄĚ (not McTell) except that he recorded for Columbia Records from 1927 through1930. There were 30 tracks total, with ten each recorded in Dallas, New Orleans and Atlanta.
Just as the Book of Revelation was written on a scroll fastened by seven seals, Blind Willie‚Äôs story was one that begged to be unlocked. The first to try was 24-year-old Samuel Charters (1929-2015), who set out for Texas in 1953 to see what he could find about two bluesmen named Johnson, who made their first records there. But while the icy trail of Robert Johnson, who recorded in San Antonio in 1936 and Dallas the next year, made even hellhounds call it a day, Charters got lucky with the gospel Johnson. Sam and his wife Ann followed leads from Dallas to Beaumont, where they eventually met Blind Willie‚Äôs widow, Angeline Johnson.
The Charters-produced 1957 album ‘Blind Willie Johnson: His Story’ (Folkways) reissued more of Johnson‚Äôs music, including ‚ÄúIf I Had My Way, I‚Äôd Tear The Building Down,‚ÄĚ which the Grateful Dead called ‚ÄúSamson And Delilah‚ÄĚ when they recorded it on 1977‚Äôs ‘Terrapin Station’. Side one concentrated on Johnson‚Äôs biography, with spoken remembrances from people who knew Blind Willie, most prominently Angeline.
Rather than detail what was wrong in some of those eyewitness reports, let‚Äôs tell you what we now know to be certain about Blind Willie Johnson, who died in Beaumont at age 48 on September 18th, 1945. The truth starts with a 1918 WWI draft registration card which popped up on ancestry.com around 2007. The card‚Äôs 21-year-old Willie Johnson lived in Houston‚Äôs Fourth Ward, in the red light district nicknamed ‚ÄúThe Reservation,‚ÄĚ which seemed strange for a gospel musician. But my research concludes that this Willie Johnson, blind, was, indeed, the Blind Willie Johnson who would bring a previously unheard intensity to music on six classics of gospel blues recorded on his first day ever in a studio.
We know draft card Willie is our guy because the 1935 Temple City Directory lists a ‚ÄúWillie Johnson, musician‚ÄĚ living at the same 308 S. Fifth St. address as four other children of the man listed as his father in 1918. When Willie Johnson and Willie B. Harris had a daughter, Sam Faye, in 1931, he said he was born in Temple. His death certificate incorrectly lists his place of birth as Independence, Texas.
Blind Willie‚Äôs parents were Dock Johnson and Mary King, married May 2, 1894 in Meridian, Texas, the town closest to the ranch where famed folklorist John A. Lomax grew up. The Johnsons moved about 50 miles south, to Bell County, before Willie Johnson was born in January 1897 in Pendleton. That year, Lomax was living in Austin, where he would graduate from the University of Texas in June. But the Lomax name would be forever connected to Blind Willie Johnson in 1977, when John‚Äôs son Alan Lomax selected Willie‚Äôs wordless symphony of loneliness, ‚ÄúDark Was The Night, Cold Was The Ground,‚ÄĚ to be placed on the Voyager I flying time capsule that is now 13 billion miles away. The otherworldly music of Blind Willie Johnson is on its way home.
A Haunting Masterpiece
Blind Willie sang in three distinctive voices: the gruff false bass, the soulful natural tenor and through his expressive slide guitar, which often finished verses for him. They were the father, the son and the Holy Ghost of his music. Johnson was a one-man Holy Trinity on ‚ÄúDark Was The Night,‚ÄĚ as his guitar preached and his congregation hummed in response.
‚ÄúThat record just scared the hell out of me,‚ÄĚ Memphis record producer Jim Dickinson said in 2003. He first heard ‚ÄúDark Was The Night‚ÄĚ in 1960 as a freshman at Baylor University, with the hums and slurs from the library headphones haunting himwith a sadness and a strength he said he never really got over. More than 55 years later, his son Luther Dickinson is one of the artists on ‘God Don‚Äôt Never Change: The Songs of Blind Willie Johnson’, an album of covers by such admirers as Tom Waits, Sinead O‚ÄôConnor, Lucinda Williams and many more. His father had told him about Blind Willie, of course, but Luther truly discovered the slide master when he delved into the roots of nascent North Mississippi bluesman Fred McDowell. ‚ÄúIt‚Äôs so of the earth, but still sounds modern to my ear,‚ÄĚ Luther Dickinson says of Johnson‚Äôs gospel blues.
‚ÄúHe‚Äôs one of only a handful of musicians who really feel like sacred music to me,‚ÄĚ says guitarist Derek Trucks, who performs ‚ÄúKeep Your Lamp Trimmed And Burning‚ÄĚ with Susan Tedeschi on ‘God Don‚Äôt Never Change’.
There are no words in Blind Willie‚Äôs ‚ÄúDark Was The Night,‚ÄĚ but there are lyrics to the Baptist hymn where it originated. It‚Äôs about the Garden of Gethsemane, where Jesus was arrested and tormented on the night before the crucifixion. ‚ÄúDark was the night and cold was the ground/On which the Lord was laid/His sweat like drops of blood ran down/In agony He prayed,‚ÄĚ wrote Thomas Haweis in 1792.
It‚Äôs a song about the Passion and Blind Willie nailed it on the first take on December 3, 1927 in Dallas. It‚Äôs a one-of-a-kind recording that‚Äôs set a mood in several films, first in Pier Paolo Pasolini‚Äôs 1964 Italian classic ‘The Gospel According To St. Matthew’. Basing his soundtrack of ‘Paris, Texas’ on ‚ÄúDark,‚ÄĚ Ry Cooder called it ‚Äúthe most soulful, transcendent piece in all of American music.‚ÄĚ
You have to wonder what Columbia‚Äôs Frank B. Walker, who produced the Dallas sessions, might have been thinking when this fully-formed blind artist came in out of nowhere to lay down that pure, primal sound. Even though Walker had signed and produced blues superstar Bessie Smith in 1923, he probably wasn‚Äôt ready for Blind Willie‚Äôs wails and moans in that voice from the depths.
An overlooked record business giant, Walker also signed great hillbilly acts like Riley Puckett, Charlie Poole and Gid Tanner and organized 1928‚Äôs influential ‚ÄúJohnson City Sessions‚ÄĚ in Tennessee. His title was A&R president, but he was really in the D&S business, with the discovery and signing of Hank Williams to MGM in 1947 putting Walker‚Äôs resume in bold.
The East Coast record men, who made frequent trips to Dallas, Memphis, New Orleans and Atlanta between 1927 and 1930, sometimes set up makeshift studios in hotels.¬† But because Walker and his engineer (‚ÄúFreiberg‚ÄĚ on label notes) were using the new Viva-Tonal! electrical recording process, those first sessions probably took place in the friendly confines of the Columbia Records complex, which covered three storefronts (2000- 2004) on North Lamar St. in Dallas‚Äô West End.
Other acts who recorded at that first Dallas session, which went from December 2-6, 1927 were Washington Phillips (‚ÄúDenomination Blues‚ÄĚ), Lillian Glinn, backed by Willie Tyson on piano, mandolinist Coley Jones and the Dallas String Band, blues singers William McCoy, Hattie Hudson and Gertrude Perkins, plus Billiken Johnson, whose popular Deep Ellum act consisted of train impersonations (‚ÄúInterurban Blues‚ÄĚ) and other sound effects. Walker told Mike Seeger in 1962 that the acts auditioned in the morning, rehearsed in the afternoon and recorded in the evening.
Johnson was not the first gospel singer to play slide guitar on record. He was beaten to the studio by a year and a half by Pittsburgh preacher Edward W. Clayborn and Delta player Sam ‚ÄúBoll Weevil Jackson‚ÄĚ Butler. Those guys were crafty and talented, but when Blind Willie started playing slide it‚Äôs like he invented the dunk. He paired gifts for improvisation and control, the melody and the rhythm, in a way that‚Äôs unsurpassed. ‚ÄúAnybody who‚Äôs ever played the bottleneck guitar with some degree of accomplishment is quoting Blind Willie to this day,‚ÄĚ said Austin slide guitarist Steve James.
Johnson grew up one county over from Blind Lemon Jefferson and they often played on opposite street corners in Hearne, according to Adam Booker, the Brenham preacher interviewed by Charters in 1955. Yet Blind Willie sounds little like the first national star of country blues. They played in the same general genre, with religious vs. secular lyrics being the core difference, but had their own styles. Jefferson didn‚Äôt play the slide. And Johnson didn‚Äôt make the people dance like Blind Lemon did.
Together and apart, these two black, blind icons from Central Texas led the way in the country blues guitar field (religion optional). They taught, through example, Reverend Gary B. Davis and Mance Lipscomb, who each brought songs from the Blind Willie Johnson canon to the ‚Äė60s folk revival.
Johnson & Johnson, Gospel And Blues
Jefferson and Johnson also inspired Robert Johnson, who laid out the blueprint for Chicago blues and its offspring in November 1936 at the Gunter Hotel in San Antonio. Johnson‚Äôs debut session, on the 23rd, produced eight tracks for Vocalion Records, including ‚ÄúI Believe I‚Äôll Dust My Broom,‚ÄĚ ‚ÄúSweet Home Chicago,‚ÄĚ ‚ÄúRamblin‚Äô On My Mind,‚ÄĚ ‚ÄúCome On In My Kitchen‚ÄĚ and ‚ÄúTerraplane Blues.‚ÄĚ There‚Äôs your Big Bang.
Though not as influential, you can put the artistic results of Blind Willie Johnson‚Äôs December 3, 1927 session in the same league of Best Studio Days Ever ‚Äď and it was nine years earlier! Blind Willie Johnson‚Äôs six tracks included ‚ÄúJesus Make Up My Dying Bed‚ÄĚ (covered by Bob Dylan as ‚ÄúIn My Time Of Dying‚ÄĚ in his 1962 debut LP), ‚ÄúNobody‚Äôs Fault But Mine‚ÄĚ (Led Zeppelin), ‚ÄúMother‚Äôs Children Have A Hard Time‚ÄĚ (Eric Clapton) and ‚ÄúIf I Had My Way‚ÄĚ (Peter, Paul & Mary‚Äôs debut LP).
Even though his playing, always on a Stella guitar, inspired a host of Delta blues men, Blind Willie refused to sing the blues, that style of music preferred by collectors and historians. Unlike the ‚Äúsongsters‚ÄĚ who mixed blues and gospel, Johnson sang only religious songs, which explains a big part of his relative obscurity. His raspy evangelical bark and dramatic guitar were designed to draw in milling, mulling masses on street corners, not to charm casual roots rock fans decades later.
But he had his time. When Willie Johnson was booked for the December 1928 sessions for Columbia, he had already sold an average of 15,000 copies of his first three 78s (at 75 cents each) and so he was treated with an earner‚Äôs respect. He had a car and driver and the label put him and Willie B. up at the Delmonico Hotel at 302 N. Central Avenue in Deep Ellum.
The couple proved to be vocal soulmates on four tracks recorded on December 5, 1928, including ‚ÄúJesus Is Coming Soon‚ÄĚ (about the 1918 Spanish Flu epidemic) and ‚ÄúKeep Your Lamp Trimmed And Burning.‚ÄĚ The Columbia recording logs also list two tracks, unnamed and unreleased, as being by ‚ÄúBlind Texas Marlin‚ÄĚ and the speculation was that Blind Texas Marlin was Blind Willie Johnson, singing some blues on the side. We‚Äôll never know. The notes and papers of Frank Buckley Walker disappeared, he said in the interview with Seeger. A big chunk of music history gone. Columbia lost or threw away the Blind Willie Johnson masters long ago and all his CD reissues were made by digitizing 78 RPM records loaned by collectors.
The search goes on, but what we still don‚Äôt know about Blind Willie Johnson could sink the Titanic. The mystery has made him more spirit than mortal, a folk hero.
The most legendary story about Blind Willie, which Angeline told to Charters in 1955, was that he was blinded by a stepmother who ‚Äúthrowed lye water in Willie‚Äôs face and put his eyes out.‚ÄĚ Angeline said Willie‚Äôs mother had died when he was a boy and his father remarried.
Dock Johnson, indeed, took a new wife, Catherine Garrett, in June 1908. But in the 1911 Temple Directory, Dock Johnson was living with a wife named Mary, before going back to Catherine two years later.
That may have something to do with the blinding of Willie Johnson. The years match with the draft card if Willie became blind at age 13 (instead of 13 years earlier‚Äďthere‚Äôs some ambiguity). That would be 1910, the census year Willie Johnson was not living in Temple with father Dock, Catherine and his brothers and sisters Wallace, Carl, Robert and Mary (who they called Jettie.) Did he stay with a relative? Did Dock break up with Catherine and go back to Willie‚Äôs mother because of the blinding, or the infidelity and the beating that, according to Angeline, led to it?
By 1915, everything seemed patched up, as Willie Johnson was listed as living with Dock and Catherine at 316 W. Avenue D in Temple, just 100 yards from the train depot. He wouldn‚Äôt stay long.
He was 18 and ready to make some money on the streets of Texas with a pocket knife, a tin cup and beat-up old guitar.
‚ÄúWhere the Cotton South Meets the Cattle West‚ÄĚ
Temple is named after Bernard Temple, who was chief engineer of the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway when the town was formed in 1881 out of 200 acres of farmland the railroad had purchased. It became even more of a railroad town when the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway (‚Äúthe Katy‚ÄĚ) laid tracks through Temple in 1882. The Santa Fe had 55 miles of track in Bell County and went up to Fort Worth and down to Galveston, while the Katy was the main route between Dallas and San Antonio. Ragtime king Scott Joplin, from Texarkana, lived circa 1895 in Temple, where he wrote and published his first sheet music pieces on a commission from the MK&T. The railroads made Temple an urban hub between Waco and Austin.
The town was also in cotton country, on the western border of the Black Waxy Prairie, so-nicknamed because of the dark and sticky soil. The crop was so identified with Bell County that the semi-pro baseball team of 1905-1907 was called the Temple Boll Weevils, after the infestation of the 1890s.
Mississippi has its Delta and in Texas the blues cradle was the basin lands between the Brazos and Trinity Rivers, east of Dallas and north of Houston. Henry ‚ÄúRagtime Texas‚ÄĚ Thomas (Big Sandy), Blind Lemon Jefferson (Wortham), Texas Alexander (Jewett), Lillian Glinn (Hillsboro), Lightnin‚Äô Hopkins (Centerville), Frankie Lee Sims (Marshall) and Mance Lipscomb (Navasota) all came from that area, as did gospel acts The Soul Stirrers (Trinity), F.W. McGee (Hillsboro) and Wash Phillips (Simsboro).
The busy season for corner singers was when the cotton came in and the streets were full of folks ready to party. Such money-making opportunities took Johnson to Hearne, Marlin, Brenham and Navasota, as well as the big cities. Because he was blind, he rode the train at reduced fare, if he had to pay at all. ‚ÄúPlay us that ‚ÄėTitanic‚Äô song!‚ÄĚ was probably enough to carry Blind Willie wherever he wanted to go.
Blind Willie‚Äôs first marriage took him to Houston in 1917, if later census numbers are correct. According to the 1930 census, the musician said he was married at age 20 and divorced. That‚Äôs approximately when the draft card said he was living in Houston, where there was plenty of work for a musician in the ‚Äúanything goes‚ÄĚ district where Johnson lived. Usually it was playing in whorehouses or medicine shows, but after the 1915 Panama Pacific Expo in San Francisco, Hawaiian steel guitar was all the rage, with the Victor label releasing 140 Hawaiian records in 1916 alone. It‚Äôs quite possible Blind Willie made money for a spell with his guitar in his lap, but his slide playing on record is more percussive, attacking, than the Island style.
Songster Mance Lipscomb (1895- 1976), who enjoyed a late-life discovery by the hippie/folk crowd thanks to music historian Mack McCormick and Arhoolie Records, recalled seeing Johnson play in front of Tex‚Äôs Radio Shop in Navasota, 90 miles northwest of Houston, as early as 1916. ‚ÄúHe just had people from here to the highway. Jes‚Äô hunnuds a people standing right on the streets,‚ÄĚ Lipscomb said in his oral autobiography I Say Me For a Parable. ‚ÄúWhite and black. Old colored folks and young ones as well. Listenin‚Äô at his voice.‚ÄĚ¬† Lipscomb said Johnson walked with a stick and traveled with a darker-skinned blind man. That was most likely Madkin Butler.
‘In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters’. ‚Äď The Book of Genesis
The dominant Texas preacher of the era was John L. ‚ÄúSin Killer‚ÄĚ Griffin, who toured all over the state and possessed, according to a Houston newspaper in 1911, a voice with the power of ‚Äúthunder‚Äôs sullen roar.‚ÄĚ But Blind Willie had a more direct model for his pulpit-shaking bellow in the singing preacher they called Blind Butler (1873- 1936). Madkin Butler showed the kid, 24 years his junior, how to make his voice heard above a crowd by flipping it inside out with authority. Butler was most likely the writer of ‚ÄúGod Moves On The Water,‚ÄĚ one of Blind Willie‚Äôs greatest recordings, which Waco folklorist Dorothy Scarborough published in 1919‚Äôs From A¬† Southern Porch folklore collection. Lipscomb recalled a night in Houston when he sang ‚ÄúTitanic,‚ÄĚ as he called ‚ÄúGod Moves,‚ÄĚ with Ophelia Butler, who he was told by McCormick, was the widow of the man who wrote it.
A singer and fiddle player who was never recorded that we know of, Madkin Butler was also probably the ‚Äúblind singer from Hearne‚ÄĚ who taught John A. Lomax ‚ÄúBoll Weevil‚ÄĚ in 1909. Willie B. Harris, who grew up in Franklin, next to Hearne, said Blind Butler was the most highly regarded singer in Robertson County.
Harris talked about the Butler/Johnson mentorship when she was interviewed in the ‚Äė70s by Dallas artist and blues collector Dan Williams. ‚ÄúShe told me they played music on the train together,‚ÄĚ Williams recalled.
As many have done before and since, Williams trekked to Marlin to find out whatever he could about that mysterious, intense, Blind Willie Johnson. ‚ÄúI approached a group of elderly black people near the town square and one of them said he was related to Blind Willie‚Äôs ex-wife, the one who sang on his records, and I thought I was going to meet Angeline Johnson,‚ÄĚ Williams recalled in 2003. ‚ÄúNobody knew anything about a Willie B. Harris.‚ÄĚ
After hearing Harris sing along to Blind Willie‚Äôs recording of ‚ÄúChurch I‚Äôm Fully Saved Today,‚ÄĚ from their final session in Atlanta on April 20, 1930, Williams was sure Harris was the duet partner. ‚ÄúShe talked about meeting Blind Willie McTell in Atlanta and I did some research and found out that, sure enough, McTell recorded at the same sessions,‚ÄĚ said Williams.
Charters inaccurately credited Angeline Johnson as the female background singer in his chapter on Blind Willie in 1959‚Äôs seminal The Country Blues, but made the correction, crediting Harris, in the liner notes for a 1993 CD reissue for Sony Legacy. Still, it‚Äôs possible that the more flamboyant Angeline was Willie‚Äôs unidentified backup singer at the sessions in New Orleans in December 1929 that produced the enduring ‚ÄúLet Your Light Shine On Me,‚ÄĚ the first song Johnson recorded in standard guitar tuning. Columbia‚Äôs Walker set up a session in Dallas a week earlier, but Blind Willie chose to record in New Orleans, so he was probably living in the closer city of Beaumont as early as 1929, which is what Angeline had been saying.
When you add up all the dates and testimony, it‚Äôs very possible that Johnson was ‚Äúmarried‚ÄĚ to both Angeline in Beaumont and Willie B. in Marlin at the same time. There is no official record of those marriages, aside from newborn daughter Sam Faye listed as legitimate in Marlin in 1931, but couples ‚Äújumping the broom‚ÄĚ together was a common matrimonial procedure for poor folks back then. Because of a December 2, 1932 entry in the San Antonio Register black newspaper, we do know Willie was married to a Mary Brown for a spell. Then, the 1937 Corpus Christi City Directory has Willie Johnson, musician, living there with wife Annie (as Angeline was known by some). That makes sense because of what McCormick said in 2003: ‚Äú(Blind Willie) left memories in Corpus Christi during WWII when there was a fear about Nazi submarines prowling the Gulf of Mexico. Someone must have told him submarines often listened to radio stations to triangulate their position. He went on the air with new verses to one of his songs, probably ‚ÄėGod Moves On The Water‚Äô about the Titanic, offering grace to his audience, then followed with a dire warning to the crew of any listening U-boat with ‚ÄėCan‚Äôt Nobody Hide From God.‚Äô‚ÄĚ
Blind Willie and Angeline moved to Beaumont for good in the early ‚Äė40s, when the gospel singer found a fan in a circus band leader with a famous trumpet-playing son. ‚ÄúHarry James‚Äô father Everett spoke very highly of Blind Willie Johnson,‚ÄĚ said McCormick, who began his musicology career as a jazz fanatic. It‚Äôs not known if Johnson ever sat in with the Mighty Haag Circus Band led by Everett James, but the possibility is mind-blowing.
In the 1945 Beaumont City Directory Johnson is listed as a Reverend living at The House of Prayer at 1440 Forest. According to his death certificate later that year, Johnson died from malarial fever, with syphilis and blindness as contributing factors.
But Angeline Johnson painted an even bleaker picture of Willie Johnson‚Äôs final days. She told Charters that her husband died from pneumonia after sleeping on wet newspapers the night after a fire. His life could‚Äôve been saved, she said, except he was refused service at the hospital because he was black and blind. But such a scenario was ‚Äúhighly unlikely‚Ä¶,‚ÄĚ said McCormick, who had worked in a Houston emergency room in the Jim Crow era of legalized discrimination. ‚ÄúHe would not have been turned away.‚ÄĚ
The 1440 Forest Avenue house stood until 1970, when it was torn down to make room for I-10.
The ‚Äúmalarial fever‚ÄĚ cause of death seemed strange for East Texas and led many to believe Angeline Johnson‚Äôs pneumonia story. But while spending 2010 researching the life of Blind Willie Johnson, recent University of Texas graduate Shane Ford came upon an interesting bit of medical information. In 1917, it was discovered that injecting malaria into patients with degenerative syphilis ‚Äúcould halt the progression of general paresis.‚ÄĚ The fever could sometimes kill the syphilis bacteria. This practice was used in the ‚Äė30s and ‚Äė40s, until penicillin was mass-produced in the late ‚Äė40s. The downside was that about 20% of those treated died from malarial fever.
Marlin And Marriages
Between his years in Temple and Beaumont, there was Marlin, perhaps the town most connected to Blind Willie this many years later. Wood Street brought the street corner gospel singer to the town 37 miles east of Temple. With its wooden sidewalks, prostitutes hanging out of windows and music coming out of every doorway, Wood Street of the ‚Äė20s and ‚Äė30s featured the most happening street scene in black Central Texas. Marlin‚Äôs a nothing town today, but during the first half of the 20th Century, after hot mineral water with reputed healing powers was discovered and bathhouses built, it was a destination with a booming economy. The New York Giants held spring training in Marlin from 1908 through 1918 and Conrad Hilton built the nine-story Falls Hotel there in 1929. There were plenty of jobs for black folks and on Saturday night, Wood Street was hopping.
Musicians played all up and down the street, according to a 94-year-old James Truesdale in 2010. ‚ÄúHe could make that guitar talk to you,‚ÄĚ the Lott native said of Blind Willie, describing a scene of people ‚Äúfalling out and hollerin‚Äô‚ÄĚ to Johnson‚Äôs gospel music. Two blocks from the sin of Wood Street was the Falls Country Baptist Association, where Truesdale said Johnson and Butler often played in a makeshift venue called the Soul Station.
When she met her future husband, Willie B. Harris worked as a bathhouse attendant and belonged to the Power House Church of God In Christ. She told Williams that she and Blind Willie began performing together at the Pentecostal church. No doubt she‚Äôd dragged him with her with her, because Blind Willie has mainly been associated with the Baptist Church.
The last known venue of a Blind Willie Johnson concert still standing is the New Jerusalem Missionary Baptist Church in Shiner, Texas. Johnson came to Shiner from San Antonio in October 1933 to play the 100-capacity church for 10 cents a ticket. ‚ÄúReserved seating for white people‚ÄĚ it said in the newspaper. It‚Äôs conceivable Blind Willie had hundreds of shows like this after making his final recordings in April 1930. Playing music live was the only way he had to make a living since his recordings were ‚Äúnon-royalty,‚ÄĚ according to Columbia session cards.
Also recently found is a clipping that describes the crowd at New York City‚Äôs Hippodrome becoming ‚Äúdeathlike‚ÄĚ quiet while Blind Willie Johnson sang ‚ÄúNobody‚Äôs Fault But Mine‚ÄĚ circa 1938. In a 1940 interview with John A. Lomax, Blind Willie McTell said he and the other Blind Willie had been touring ‚Äúfrom Maine to Mobile.‚ÄĚ McTell paid homage to his old friend when he cut ‚ÄúMotherless Children‚ÄĚ for Atlantic in 1949. That‚Äôs how long it took for word of Johnson‚Äôs death to reach many of those who knew him, one reason earlier biographies had him dying in ‚Äô49, not ‚Äô45.
There‚Äôs been only one photo found of Willie Johnson, wearing a suit and sitting at a piano with his guitar. His left pinkie appears to be straightened by a glass or steel cylinder, which is how Angeline‚Äôs brother, Brenham-raised blues guitarist L.C. Robinson, said Johnson played slide. ‚ÄúHe used to come stay with us, two, three nights, and he‚Äôd sit there and play that guitar, religious songs,‚ÄĚ Robinson told Living Blues in 1975 about his brother-in-law. ‚ÄúI was watching him with that bottle on there and started playing that way, too.‚ÄĚ
But bluesman Thomas Shaw (1908-1977) told the magazine in 1972 that Blind Willie slid a pocketknife over the strings to play slide. ‚ÄúWillie lived in Temple and we‚Äôd go down there to play for the country dances and school openings and all and I‚Äôd stay with him,‚ÄĚ said Shaw. ‚ÄúI learned that ‚ÄėJust Can‚Äôt Keep From Cryin‚Äô from him but I learned to pick it ‚Äôcause I didn‚Äôt like the knife on it.‚ÄĚ
Listening to Johnson fretting strings and playing rhythm along with his slide, it seems unlikely he played with a knife in the studio, but it could‚Äôve been a cool street corner trick.
The Sounds Of Earth In Outer Space
Blind Willie‚Äôs songs were about the love of Jesus and the hope of salvation, with a touch of Old Testament vengeance. With his soul-tortured delivery, there‚Äôs a depth to the material not often heard in the records Brunswick, Columbia, Paramount and Victor put out in the ‚Äúrace records‚ÄĚ decade ushered in by Mamie Smith‚Äôs sensational 1920 hit ‚ÄúCrazy Blues.‚ÄĚ
But how many of those songs did he write? How many were adapted from public domain sources such as religious hymns and old ‚ÄúNegro spirituals‚ÄĚ? It‚Äôs certainly a question to be determined once an estate for Blind Willie Johnson is finally established.
Precedents for ‚ÄúNobody‚Äôs Fault But Mine,‚ÄĚ ‚ÄúMotherless Children,‚ÄĚ ‚ÄúSoul Of A Man‚ÄĚ and the topical songs ‚ÄúJesus Is Coming‚ÄĚ and ‚ÄúWhen The War Is On‚ÄĚ haven‚Äôt been found, so they can be classified as original compositions. But the majority of Johnson‚Äôs 29 recorded songs (he cut ‚ÄúYou‚Äôll Need Somebody On Your Bond‚ÄĚ twice) came from other sources.¬† According to Max Haymes‚Äô ‚ÄúRoots of Blind Willie Johnson‚ÄĚ research, the singer took three songs from the 1923 recordings of the Wiseman Sextette and covered T.E. Weems on ‚ÄúIf I Had My Way,‚ÄĚ Arizona Dranes on ‚ÄúBye And Bye, I‚Äôm Going To See the King‚ÄĚ and Blind Joe Taggart‚Äôs ‚ÄúTake Your Burden To The Lord.‚ÄĚ But entertainment attorney William Krasilovsky said in 2003 that a Blind Willie estate could earn money by copyrighting his arrangements. ‚ÄúDoes the work have distinctive fingerprints of originality that qualify for a new derivative copyright of public domain material?‚ÄĚ he asked, reading from a copyright law book.
‚ÄúDistinctive fingerprints‚ÄĚ could be the title of a Blind Willie Johnson biography. In most cases, however, Johnson‚Äôs fingers left the slightest forensic evidence behind, which makes what they did with a guitar, under that powerful voice, all that matters. The music‚Äôs so supercharged with self-expression that the truth is right there for all to hear.
That‚Äôs why ‚ÄúDark Was The Night‚ÄĚ was chosen for the Golden Record aboard Voyager 1, which continues its journey to the galaxy‚Äôs back yard. The interstellar space probe left the solar system in 2012 and continues its mission to find intelligent life in other planetary systems.
Should aliens happen upon the spacecraft and, with the record player provided, listen to that eerie, moaning, steel-sliding memorial to the Crucifixion, they will know that we are a spiritual people, that we hurt and we heal, that we do indeed have souls that live long after we‚Äôre buried.
¬†The above is the unedited sleevenotes for the forthcoming album on Alligator Records, ‘God Don’t Never Change – The Songs of Blind Willie Johnson’.
THANKS: To all the searchers, especially Sam & Ann Charters, Dan Williams, Jeffrey Gaskill, Michael Hall, D.N. Blakey, Mack McCormick, Shane Ford and Anna Obek, whose hours saved me days.